Bewertung regulatorischer Steuerungsinstrumente zur Synchronisierung des Zubaus von Anlagen auf Basis erneuerbarer Energien mit dem deutschen Übertragungsnetz
Lück, Lara; Moser, Albert (Thesis advisor); Praktiknjo, Aaron Jonathan (Thesis advisor)
1. Auflage. - Aachen : printproduction M. Wolff GmbH (2020)
Book, Dissertation / PhD Thesis
In: Aachener Beiträge zur Energieversorgung 199
Page(s)/Article-Nr.: ix, 172 Seiten : Illustrationen, Diagramme, Karten
Dissertation, RWTH Aachen University, 2020
The expansion of generation units based renewable energy in Germany, which is promoted by the Renewable Energy Sources Act (German: Gesetz für den Vorrang Erneuerbarer Energien), has led to increasing congestions in the transmission grid in recent years. Growing costs for congestion management have increasingly led to political discussions on how to regulate the location of wind turbines or photovoltaic units with the aim of synchronizing their expansion with the expansion of the transport capacity of the transmission grid. A number of different regulatory instruments are being debated. The question of which instruments offer macroeconomic added value remains unresolved, since shifting locations can mean a reduction in the cost of congestion management, but also an increase in the cost of electricity generation if grid-congestion-related locations have to be used which offer lower electricity yields. The aim of this thesis is therefore to evaluate the macroeconomic added value of regulatory instruments for synchronizing the expansion of wind turbines and photovoltaic units with the expansion of the German transmission grid with regard to their macroeconomic impact on the generation system and grid operation. To answer this question, a model is be developed and a procedure implemented that can simulate the regional distribution of wind turbines as well as roof and ground-mounted photovoltaic units, taking into account relevant drivers and different regulatory instruments. These relevant drivers include economic efficiency, land suitability and societal reservations, which, together with regulatory control instruments, lead to a differentiation between locations and must be taken into account. Based on the determined spatial distribution of future renewable energy systems, the change in electricity generation costs and the costs of redispatch and feed-in management can be derived using market and grid operation simulations. In exemplary studies, first of all a parameter estimation is carried out for the developed model to realistically reproduce the relevant drivers. It is shown that a good agreement with the historical unit distribution can be achieved by a suitable parameter selection. Existing regulatory approaches - the quantity control of the overall added capacity and the reference yield model - are taken into account. Subsequently, the evaluation of additional control instruments for onshore wind turbines in the year 2025 is performed. Results of six exemplary variants of instruments show reductions, but no prevention, of transmission grid congestions. However, cost savings in congestion management are offset by additional costs in the generation system, which means that, depending on the variant, this additional control system will add a slightly positive or negative value. A certain excess of the transport capacity of the transmission grid due to the choice of location of generation units based renewable energy proves to be economically efficient.