Ermittlung des Netzausbaubedarfs anhand georeferenzierter Verteilnetzmodelle

  • Determination of grid expansion requirements using geo-referenced distribution grid models

Sprey, Julian Maurice; Moser, Albert (Thesis advisor); Ulbig, Andreas (Thesis advisor)

1. Auflage. - Aachen : printproduction M. Wolff GmbH (2021)
Book, Dissertation / PhD Thesis

In: Aachener Beitr├Ąge zur Energieversorgung 210
Page(s)/Article-Nr.: viii, 127 Seiten : Illustrationen, Diagramme, Karten

Dissertation, RWTH Aachen University, 2021

Abstract

The expansion of generation units based on renewable energies as well as the expected connection of heat pumps and charging infrastructure for electric vehicles are changing the supply task in the distribution grids. In many grids, these developments lead to grid expansion requirements. The extent and heterogeneity of the medium and low-voltage grids (MV and LV grids) as well as the low availability of grid data make it difficult to consider all of the approx. 4,500 MV grids and approx. 500,000 LV grids in Germany. Energy economic questions, such as the question of the expected requirement for grid expansion, have so far only been carried out for a few exemplary grids, which are used as individual results for extrapolation. With the increasing availability of publicly accessible geo-referenced data, the question is whether the distribution grids of the German MV and LV level can be modelled completely and realistically and thus whether the German distribution grid expansion requirements can be determined. Therefore, the aim of this research project was to develop a method for generating geo-referenced MV and LV grids for Germany, on which basis the grid expansion requirements can be determined and evaluated. The first scientific contribution of the dissertation is the developed method, which combines publicly available data sets, such as data from the OpenStreetMap project, the data from the census 2011 and the core energy market data register, to form a building- and generation unit-specific model of the current supply task and then determines the grid structure using road layouts and taking into account principles for planning and operating the grids. To define grid areas, cluster algorithms are used. Ring grid structures of the MV grids are derived via a capacitated vehicle routing problem, radial grid structures of the LV grids via a capacitated minimum spanning tree problem. In a comparison with published grid structure characteristics of the MV and LV levels, the exemplary application of the developed method shows that it can model today's grid structure quantity with sufficient accuracy using publicly available datasets. With the geo-referenced grid dataset of the MV and LV grids, the heterogeneity of all MV and LV grids can be represented for the first time using various grid structure characteristics in terms of grid length, grid customer density and load density. The results show the expected differences between urban and rural grids, but also within urban and rural regions the grids are very heterogeneous. The second scientific contribution of the dissertation is the determination of the grid expansion requirements of the entire MV and LV grids in Germany for the first time on the basis of a Germany-wide grid model. As expected, the investigation of the grid expansion requirements shows for given scenarios of the future supply task that in rural regions the expansion of wind energy and photovoltaic generation units continues to be the main driver of the grid expansion and that in urban regions an increase in charging infrastructure for electric vehicles can have an impact on the grid expansion requirements. However, even within rural or urban regions, there are strong differences per specific grid, which cannot be adequately represented by the usual consideration of representative grids.

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